Руководство по безопасности танкеров (сжиженный газ), 4-е изд. 2023 г. на английском языке


   
 
 

Tanker Safety Guide (Liquefied Gas), 4th Edition 2023

Abbreviations

Definitions

Chapter 1. The properties and hazards of liquefied gases
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Flammability
1.3 Occupational health hazards
1.3.1 Toxicity
1.3.2 Asphyxia
1.3.3 Anaesthesia
1.3.4 Cold burns and frostbite
1.4 Reactivity
1.4.1 Self reaction
1.4.2 Reaction with air
1.4.3 Reaction with other cargoes
1.4.4 Reaction with other materials
1.5 Corrosivity
1.6 Vapour characteristics
1.7 Low temperature effects
1.7.1 Brittle fracture
1.7.2 Spillage
1.7.3 Cooldown
1.7.4 Ice formation
1.7.5 Rollover (LNG)
1.7.6 Rollover (LPG)
1.8 Pressure
1.8.1 Absolute and gauge pressure
1.8.2 High and low pressure effects
1.8.3 Pressure surge
1.8.4 Pressurized systems
1.8.5 Reciprocating compressors
1.8.6 Cargo tank pressures
1.8.7 Liquid gas samples
1.8.8 Pressure relief valves
1.8.9 Cargo heaters

Chapter 2. General precautions
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Cargo information
2.3 Mooring
2.3.1 Mooring at buoy moorings
2.4 Emergency towing off pennants
2.5 Access to ship
2.5.1 Means of access
2.5.2 Lighting
2.5.3 Unauthorized access
2.5.4 Persons smoking or intoxicated
2.6 Warning notices
2.6.1 Permanent warning notices
2.6.2 Temporary warning notices
2.7 Craft alongside
2.8 Weather precautions
2.8.1 Wind conditions
2.8.2 Electrical storms
2.8.3 Cold weather
2.8.4 Operations in ice and/or severe subzero temperatures
2.9 Openings in deckhouses and superstructures
2.10 Machinery spaces
2.10.1 Funnel sources of ignition
2.10.2 Blowing boiler tubes
2.10.3 Cargo vapour
2.11 Cargo machinery room precautions
2.11.1 Cargo compressor/machinery rooms
2.12 Ship’s readiness to move
2.13 Navigation and bridge procedures
2.13.1 Ship’s transmission equipment
2.14 Environmental protection
2.15 Firefighting and fire protection
2.16 Helicopter operations

Chapter 3. Safety management
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Safety culture
3.2.1 What is a safety culture?
3.2.2 Key features of an effective safety culture
3.3 The human element
3.4 The Safety Management System (SMS)
3.5 Safety information for shore personnel
3.6 Outside contractors
3.7 Risk management
3.7.1 Risk assessment process
3.7.2 Conducting risk assessments
3.7.3 Risk assessment matrix
3.8 Safe operations
3.8.1 Leadership
3.8.2 Stop work authority
3.8.3 Routine operations
3.8.4 Nonroutine operations
3.9 ship’s crewing
3.9.1 Introduction
3.9.2 Responsibility
3.9.3 Crew resources
3.9.4 Training
3.9.5 Familiarization
3.9.6 Crew communication
3.9.7 Drills and exercises
3.9.8 Crew schedules and minimum hours of rest
3.9.9 Summary of STCW hours of rest requirements
3.9.10 Fatigue
3.9.11 Prevention of drug and alcohol abuse
3.10 Personal protection and lifesaving
3.10.1 Introduction
3.10.2 Personal protective equipment
3.10.3 Decontamination water sprays and showers
3.10.4 Canister and filter type respirators
3.10.5 Breathing apparatus
3.10.6 Safe haven
3.10.7 First aid
3.10.8 Resuscitation
3.10.9 Frostbite
3.11 Incident investigations

Chapter 4. Cargo handling plant and equipment
4.1 Cargo pumps
4.1.1 Deepwell pumps
4.1.2 Fixed submerged pumps
4.1.3 Removable (emergency) submerged pumps
4.1.4 Booster pumps and deck mounted pumps
4.1.5 Hold or interbarrier space pumps
4.2 Compressors
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Reciprocating compressors
4.2.3 Centrifugal compressors
4.2.4 Rootes type compressors
4.2.5 Screw compressors
4.2.6 Heat exchangers
4.3 Inert gas systems
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Inert gas generator
4.3.3 Scrubbers
4.3.4 Refrigeration and condensers
4.3.5 Driers
4.3.6 Use of nitrogen as inert gas
4.4 Gas combustion units
4.5 Pressure relief systems
4.5.1 General
4.5.2 Cargo pressure relief devices
4.5.3 Hold space relief devices
4.6 Vacuum relief systems
4.7 Valves
4.8 Filters and strainers
4.9 Expansion bellows
4.10 Vent and purge masts
4.11 Pipeline supports
4.12 Insulation
4.2 Compressors
4.2.1 General
4.2.2 Reciprocating compressors
4.2.3 Centrifugal compressors
4.2.4 Rootes type compressors
4.2.5 Screw compressors
4.2.6 Heat exchangers
4.3 Inert gas systems
4.3.1 General
4.3.2 Inert gas generator
4.3.3 Scrubbers
4.3.4 Refrigeration and condensers
4.3.5 Driers
4.3.6 Use of nitrogen as inert gas
4.4 Gas combustion units
4.5 Pressure relief systems
4.5.1 General
4.5.2 Cargo pressure relief devices
4.5.3 Hold space relief devices
4.6 Vacuum relief systems
4.7 Valves
4.8 Filters and strainers
4.9 Expansion bellows
4.10 Vent and purge masts
4.11 Pipeline supports
4.12 Insulation

Chapter 5. Cargo system instrumentation
5.1 Liquid level gauges
5.1.1 General
5.1.2 Radar gauges
5.1.3 Ultrasonic gauges
5.1.4 Float gauges
5.1.5 Capacitance probes
5.1.6 Slip tube and fixed tube gauges
5.2 Level alarms, automatic shutdown and emergency shutdown
5.2.1 High level alarms
5.2.2 Low level alarms
5.2.3 Automatic shutdown systems
5.2.4 Emergency shutdown (ESD) systems
5.3 Pressure indicating devices
5.4 Temperature monitoring equipment

Chapter 7. Fire hazards and precautions
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Flammability of liquefied gases
7.3.1 Loading
7.3.2 Carriage
7.3.3 Disposal
7.4 Atmosphere control
7.4.1 General
7.4.2 Cargo tanks and piping systems
7.4.3 Hold and interbarrier spaces
7.4.4 Inert gas quality
7.4.5 Inert gas hazards and precautions
7.5 Static electricity
7.5.1 Electrostatic generation
7.5.2 Steam
7.5.3 Carbon dioxide
7.5.4 Ship/shore insulating, earthing and bonding
7.6 Precautions against sources of ignition
7.6.1 Smoking
7.6.2 Electrical installations
7.6.3 Portable electrical equipment
7.6.4 ship’s communications equipment
7.6.5 Electrical maintenance and repairs
7.6.6 Personal electronic items
7.6.7 Aluminium equipment
7.6.8 Auto ignition
7.6.9 Spontaneous combustion
7.7 Hot work
7.7.1 General
7.7.2 Assessment of hot work
7.7.3 Hot work permit
7.7.4 Preparations for hot work
7.7.5 Checks by officer responsible for safety during hot work
7.7.6 Actions on completion of hot work
7.7.7 Hot work flow chart
7.8 Cold work
7.8.1 Mechanically powered tools
7.8.2 Hand tools
7.9 Firefighting and fire protection equipment
7.9.1 Firefighting equipment
7.9.2 Vent mast protection screens and flame screens

Chapter 8. Cargo operations
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Responsibility
8.3 Commissioning the cargo system
8.4 General cycle of operations
8.5 Preparation for cargo transfer
8.5.1 General
8.5.2 Pressure surge
8.6 Inerting and gassing up
8.6.1 Genera
l 8.6.2 Inerting
8.6.3 Gassing up
8.6.4 Methods of inerting and gassing up
8.7 Preparations for loading
8.7.1 General
8.7.2 Cooldown of tanks and pipelines
8.7.3 Ice or hydrate formation
8.7.4 Minimum cargo tank temperature
8.7.5 Rollover precautions
8.8 Cargo loading
8.9 Cargo conditioning
8.9.1 General
8.9.2 Reliquefaction and boil off control
8.9.3 Sloshing
8.9.4 Use of cargo as fuel
8.10 Cargo discharge
8.11 Ship-to-ship transfer
8.12 Ballasting and deballasting
8.13 Simultaneous operations
8.13.1 LNG bunkering simultaneous operations
8.14 Separation of cargoes
8.15 Commingling of LPG cargoes in port
8.16 Changing cargoes
8.16.1 Cargo stripping
8.16.2 Change of cargo
8.16.3 Displacing atmosphere with nitrogen/inert gas (inerting)
8.16.4 Gassing up with vapour of the next cargo
8.16.5 Water washing after ammonia cargoes
8.17 Gas freeing and aeration
8.18 Venting at sea
8.19 Deck storage tanks
8.20 Sampling
8.20.1 Sampling systems
8.20.2 Liquid samples
8.20.3 Vapour samples
8.21 Custody transfer measurement systems
8.22 Drydocking and repair periods

Chapter 9. Cargo equipment
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Plant and equipment precautions
9.2.1 Pumps
9.2.2 Compressors
9.2.3 Heat exchangers
9.2.4 Electrical equipment
9.2.5 Control and alarm systems
9.2.6 Instrumentation
9.2.7 Valves
9.2.8 Cargo vent systems
9.2.9 Expansion/contraction fittings
9.2.10 Cargo pipelines
9.2.11 ship’s cargo hoses
9.2.12 Manifold connections using emergency release couplings
9.2.13 Inert gas systems
9.2.14 Dry air supply
9.2.15 Ventilation equipment
9.3 Equipment maintenance
9.3.1 Maintenance
9.3.2 Maintenance of electrical equipment

Chapter 10. Reliquefaction and boil off control
10.1 The types of reliquefication systems
10.2 Types of refrigerated gas carriers
10.2.1 LPG carriers
10.2.2 LNG carriers
10.3 Reliquefaction systems
10.3.1 Plant requirements
10.3.2 Plant duties
10.3.3 Plant auxiliary functions
10.3.4 Refrigerant system auxiliary functions
10.3.5 Reliquefaction cycles
10.4 Reliquefaction plant operations (for LPG carriers)
10.4.1 General
10.4.2 Preliminary precautions
10.4.3 Cargo reliquefaction plant operations
10.4.4 Refrigerant system operations
10.4.5 Completion of reliquefaction operations
10.4.6 Glycol systems
10.4.7 Antifreeze injection
10.4.8 Hydrate formation
10.4.9 Incondensable gases

Chapter 11. Bunkering

Chapter 12. Pressure surge effects
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Generation of pressure surge
12.3 Other surge pressure effects

Chapter 13. Enclosed spaces
13.1 General
13.1.1 Hazards of enclosed spaces
13.1.2 Oxygen deficiency
13.1.3 Toxic and/or flammable gases
13.1.4 The presence of inert gas
13.1.5 Oxygen enrichment
13.2 Atmosphere in enclosed spaces
13.3 Requirements for enclosed space entry
13.3.1 Planning
13.3.2 Entry permit
13.4 Testing before entry
13.4.1 Testing for entry in shipyards
13.5 Entry into enclosed spaces
13.5.1 Entry into cargo tanks
13.5.2 Entry into enclosed spaces other than cargo tanks
13.5.3 Cargo control rooms
13.5.4 Cargo pump or compressor rooms, motor rooms and airlocks
13.5.5 Engine or boiler rooms
13.6 Work in enclosed spaces
13.7 Enclosed space entry permit
13.8 Rescue from enclosed spaces
13.8.1 General
13.8.2 Preventing enclosed space accidents
13.8.3 Rescue and recovery organisation
13.8.4 The rescue operation
13.8.5 Rescue and recovery equipment

Chapter 14. Emergencies
14.1 Water leakage into hold or interbarrier space
14.2 Hose burst, pipework fracture or cargo spillage
14.3 Dispersion of liquid spill and vapour emissions by water spray
14.4 Tank leakage
14.5 Emergency discharge of cargo at sea (jettison)
14.6 Safety incidents involving personnel
14.7 Reporting

Chapter 15. Firefighting
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Firefighting organisation
15.3 Special considerations for fighting liquefied gas fires
15.3.1 Isolating the source
15.3.2 Use of water
15.3.3 Use of dry powder
15.4 Vent mast fires
15.5 Fires near to the ship
15.6 Boiling liquid/expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE

) Chapter 16. Drydocking and repair periods
16.1 Special considerations
16.1.1 Cargo tanks and hold or interbarrier spaces
16.1.2 Instruments
16.1.3 Hot work during repair periods
16.1.4 Deck storage tanks
16.2 Recommissioning

Appendices
Appendix A Ship/shore safety checklist
Appendix B Conversion tables
Appendix C Example hot work permit
Appendix D Example enclosed space entry permit
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